Classics

Design without limits: The BMW GINA study

A concept car usually provides a foretaste of a future series model. But the BMW GINA Light Visionary Model of 2008 went further than that: it showcased what is possible when you push the boundaries of automotive design.

By
Jan Wilms

“Zzzzzip!” Chris Bangle, design director of the BMW Group from 1992 to 2009, prefaced his explanation with a zipping motion: “It took us less than two hours to design the entire exterior.” He was referring to the genesis in 2008 of the most extraordinary BMW roadster of all time: the two-seater BMW GINA Light Visionary Model. This concept car is currently on display at the BMW Museum in Munich, where it still looks as futuristic as a spaceship from another galaxy. Rather than offer a foretaste of a new generation of sports cars, eight years ago the designers at BMW set themselves the ultimate challenge: to explore the outermost reaches of automotive design.

Early thinking for the BMW GINA Light Visionary Model questioned why it was necessary to make a car’s exterior from preformed metal or plastic sheeting.

One of the GINA’s most spectacular features is its textile exterior, made from a special, innovative synthetic fabric – a highly resilient, extremely flexible and virtually seamless outer skin that stretches tightly around the vehicle.

Early thinking for GINA questioned why it was necessary to make a car’s exterior from preformed metal or plastic sheeting, as had been the case for around 100 years. What if this outermost layer – a car’s most visible feature – were to be comprehensively redesigned? It was a paradigm shift that would spark some serious reflection on the car of the future.

The acronym GINA is derived from German for “Geometry and Functions in ‘N’ Adaptations.” Specifically, Bangle and his team were looking for fundamentally new solutions. Their benchmarks were car buyers of the future, about whom little was known, except that they would be highly sophisticated and individualistic. With its flexible design and elements cropping up in current and future BMW models, GINA exemplified the BMW brand philosophy: interdisciplinary thinking, a non-conformist approach, and pleasure in research and on the road.

Liquid silver on the outside conceals a spaceframe underneath

At first sight, GINA looks like a sculpture that has been dipped in liquid silver. The proportions were borrowed from what was the latest-generation BMW Z4, but just about everything else was revolutionary. In particular, there is the exterior made from an innovative synthetic fabric: a highly resilient, extremely flexible and virtually seamless outer skin that stretches right around the vehicle. The natural properties of this synthetic skin enabled the designers to play with razor-sharp edges and alternating concave and convex surfaces. This resulted in a fundamentally new interpretation of elements that were normally assembled separately, such as the fascia, hood, sidewalls, doors, wheel arches, roof, trunk and tail end – not to mention the molding of the front and sides into a single closed unit.

The synthetic skin resulted in a fundamentally new interpretation of elements that were normally assembled separately, such as the fascia, hood, side walls, doors, wheel arches, roof, trunk and tail end.

GINA is currently on display at the BMW Museum in Munich, where it still looks as futuristic as a spaceship from another galaxy. Rather than offer a foretaste of a new generation of sports cars, eight years ago the designers at BMW  set themselves the ultimate challenge: to explore the outermost reaches of automotive design.

GINA is currently on display at the BMW Museum in Munich, where it still looks as futuristic as a spaceship from another galaxy. Rather than offer a foretaste of a new generation of sports cars, eight years ago the designers at BMW set themselves the ultimate challenge: to explore the outermost reaches of automotive design.

GINA outer skin conceals an electrically and electrohydraulically controlled movable metal frame. This lends the vehicle the appearance of a living organism – the skin stretches elastically over doors that swing out and up, like the wings of a bat. The hood parts in the middle like a stage curtain, at the center of which is mounted the V-8 engine. Two slits in front open up like a pair of peeping eyes to reveal the BMW twin headlights concealed beneath. In addition, the technology permits an automatic and seamlessly variable width of lateral sill contours for improved aerodynamics. And at the car’s rear, the tail lamps wink mysteriously beneath the opaque-looking, yet translucent skin.

Balance between man and machine

The design was unprecedented, striking a balance between technological perfection and organic warmth. In so doing, it appealed directly to the emotions. “Our aim was to reach a higher emotional plane – to return car design to the human dimension,” Bangle said. It was a bold concept that succeeded simply because designers and production engineers pooled their efforts through dialogue. One example of this is the ultra-light carbon-fiber-reinforced BMW aluminum spaceframe, which gives the GINA Light Visionary Model its solid base. This robust skeletal frame not only guarantees all the basic functions of a car; it also offers the typical BMW sports car driving experience combined with outstanding safety features.

The additional functions of the outer skin – protection from wind, rain, snow, heat, cold and debris – could be achieved using a lighter, more flexible material. This is where the car designers in Munich turned for help to BMW Group Designworks in California. Inspired by a material used in contemporary architecture, the design studio proposed the use of an industrially manufactured hybrid fabric that was both water-repellent and resistant to heat and cold. In addition, the approach enabled designers to reproduce precisely the kind of fold lines that are created when opening the door.

The GINA Light Visionary Model gives the driver a direct taste of this freer, less complex, more “purist” driver/vehicle relationship. The headrests, invisible prior to entry, rise automatically from beneath the seat covers when the driver climbs aboard. And when seated, the typical driver-oriented BMW cockpit moves into position. “Flexibility and change in thought and deed,” is how Chris Bangle once described the GINA core philosophy. It remains as valid now as it was then.

With its flexible design and elements found in current and future BMW models, GINA exemplified the BMW brand philosophy: interdisciplinary thinking, a non-conformist approach, and pleasure in research and on the road.

10/05/16