3D printing: let’s print a house

Do 3D printing technologies signal the start of a new industrial revolution? Will we soon be able to 3D-print our own toothbrushes? Here we take a look at the real potential offered by this much-hyped production process and the possibilities it holds for the years ahead.

Marie-Sophie Müller

EOS and New Balance: customised running shoes

No two runners are alike. But for elite athletes, winning is measured in hundredths of a second. So for personal best times it pays to make sure the spike plates on running shoes are individually customised. Using an EOS 3D printer and a specially developed nylon blend, New Balance has come up with a technique to produce runner-specific spike plates based on each athlete’s biomechanical data, including mechanical forces and pressure values, which are then printed out using 3D printing technology. In the manufacture of a traditional sports shoe, each plate requires several injection moulds of varying sizes. The mould is expensive and used to manufacture thousands of identical spike plates. But with 3D technology the printed spike plate is resource-efficient and can be quickly replaced or modified if necessary – which means individually customised running shoes on demand.

Joris Laarman: footbridge in Amsterdam

Dutch Designer Joris Laarman has been experimenting with 3D technologies for several years. He achieved worldwide fame in 2006 with his computer-generated Bone Chair, a design inspired by the growth principle of bones. Now he has discovered a way to print freeform structures in mid air which in theory could reach infinite proportions. Robotic arms equipped with welding guns are programmed to shape droplets of molten steel into stable, complex structures. The first bridge to be built using this technique will span one of Amsterdam’s canals by 2017.

BigRep’s 3D printer

With a print volume of one cubic metre, this is the world’s largest mass-produced 3D printer. BigRep One from Berlin carries a price tag of around 50,000 euros – a fraction of the cost of the more powerful industrial models. The printer has been on sale worldwide since 2014. An Australian bus manufacturer, for example, uses it to “print” front ends. And in the medical technology industry, prostheses can be manufactured quickly to meet individual requirements. But the printer is used mainly for prototyping in the design phase, enabling designers to generate new developments faster, cheaper and using fewer materials.

i3 Berlin printer

The i3 Berlin was developed and perfected in workshops by a community over a two-year period. Measuring just 20 x 20 x 20 cm, the 3D printer is much smaller in format than the BigRep One, but works on the same principle. An open-source construction manual is now available on the internet. The printer comes with one or two print jets and can be bought in kit form for home construction or preassembled for just 1,350 euros (workshop included) from retailers such as the 3D print shop Youin3D in Berlin.

Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Skidmore, Owings & Merrill: 3D-printed building AMIE

Dental prostheses, building components and scale models are all well and good – but is it possible to 3D-print an entire building? No problem, says SOM, the Chicago-based firm of architects. At the International Builders’ Show held in Las Vegas in January 2016, the designers collaborated with the Oak Ridge Natural Laboratory to create AMIE (Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy), a building measuring almost 12 metres in length and 4 metres in height and width. Made from 3D-printed skeletal structural components, AMIE is capable of generating its own energy from integrated solar panels to power a hybrid-drive vehicle – likewise built using 3D-print technology.

The future has arrived in an inner courtyard in Berlin. On the third floor of an industrial building in the Kreuzberg district, computer-controlled printer heads run almost silently back and forth across the base of a man-sized skeletal cube, creating an object layer by layer out of fine plastic threads. “It’s a part for a drone,” explains Jasmin Ribouni of BigRep, the company that makes the world’s largest mass-produced 3D printer. Founded in 2014, the young company initially focused on printing moulds, scale models and prototypes for designers, architects and artists. Today BigRep One is increasingly an industrial machine. “You could say that 3D printing is now at the same stage of development as the internet was in 1996,” says Ribouni. “We have the basics, but the technique is far from delivering the full potential benefits. With the right software, for example, printers can build networks and print mini series in different locations. I also like the social element of this technology: with a 3D printer I can set up a business in any country on earth and produce objects that would not otherwise be available so easily.”

The company sold over 100 printers in 2015 alone, most of them to North America, some even to Australia. It is ironic to think that the very machine that will one day liberate us from complex distribution channels is now being shipped all over the world from Berlin. Although BigRep is far from your average copy shop, here in Kreuzberg potential buyers can make test prints of objects like the drone part.

There is a growing trend towards 3D workshops that allows anyone interested in the technology to have an object printed or even try printing it for themselves. In Berlin, for example, there’s FabLab, where customers can print objects using the i3 Berlin, an open-source 3D printer that came about as a result of many workshops and for which an open-source construction manual is available on the web. Designers can use the i3 Berlin to print micro production series, prototypes or moulds for use with other materials. This means they are less dependent on large manufacturers.

Annika Frye does not believe the technology will soon be turning us all from consumers into manufacturers, printing Lego bricks for our children in the playroom, as predicted by Chris Anderson in 2013 in his book Makers: “The 3D printer isn’t some magic box,” the designer explains. “3D printing is only useful in furniture design when the parameters are right, for example, or when objects need customising: a shelf that has to fit a certain corner, or to create variation in details such as ornamentation. It’s still much too expensive for series production. But 3D printing has a future wherever individual customisation is required, for example in the luxury industry.”

Lasst year Frye designed a table for BigRep. The aesthetic of her Woven Table derives from the possibilities and limitations of FDM (fused deposition modelling) printing: “My aim was to create something specifically for this printing technique, to develop a formal idiom that worked with the conditions imposed by the machine.” Just as wood has a grain, so a 3D print has a structure created by the thin layering process. The finished 3D print can be left in its raw form, treated or laminated. The conference room at BigRep Studios houses a concrete-coated version of her Woven Table.

Other additive manufacturing techniques exist alongside FDM. Laser sintering involves the selective fusion of powder layers (ceramic, metal or plastic), for example, and by means of stereolithography (SLA) printing, objects are formed by laser in a vessel of liquid photopolymer.

Joris Laarman from Amsterdam has developed a way to “print” freeform, self-supporting and theoretically infinitely large structures in mid air. Robotic arms equipped with welding guns are programmed to shape droplets of molten steel into stable, complex structures. The first bridge will be built across one of Amsterdam’s canals using this futuristic technique in 2017.

In his 2013 State of the Union address, Barack Obama predicted that “3D printing has the potential to revolutionise the way we make almost everything.” Just four years on, Obama may be able to walk across the first 3D-printed bridge – although to do so he’ll have to travel to Europe.

Annika Frye: 3D-printed tables

How do you design an object for a specific manufacturing technique? What kind of formal idiom works with the possibilities and limitations of 3D printing? These were the questions facing designer Annika Frye in 2015 when she created a one-piece table for BigRep to match the characteristics of FDM printer BigRep One. What she came up with was a circular latticework structure, the diameter of which got smaller throughout the printing process. The object was then turned upside down to create a table. The Woven Table design uses both the layered and the textile looks typical of FDM (fused deposition modelling) prints.